Sabtu, 31 Desember 2011

soap bar, liquid soap

In chemistry, soap is a salt of a fatty acid. Soaps are mainly used as surfactants for washing, bathing, and cleaning, but they are also used in textile spinning and are important components of lubricants. Soaps for cleansing are obtained by treating vegetable or animal oils and fats with a strongly alkaline solution. Fats and oils are composed of triglycerides: three molecules of fatty acids attached to a single molecule of glycerol. The alkaline solution, often called lye, brings about a chemical reaction known as saponification. In saponification, the fats are first hydrolyzed into free fatty acids, which then combine with the alkali to form crude soap. Glycerol, often called glycerine, is liberated and is either left in or washed out and recovered as a useful by-product according to the process employed.
Soaps are key components of most lubricating greases, which are usually emulsions of calcium soap or lithium soaps and mineral oil. These calcium- and lithium-based greases are widely used. Many other metallic soaps are also useful, including those of aluminium, sodium, and mixtures of them. Such soaps are also used as thickeners to increase the viscosity of oils. In ancient times, lubricating greases were made by the addition of lime to olive oil.
Mechanism of cleansing soaps
 Structure of a micelle, a cell-like structure formed by the aggregation of soap subunits (such as sodium stearate). The exterior of the micelle is hydrophilic (attracted to water) and the interior is lipophilic (attracted to oils).
When used for cleaning, soap serves as a surfactant in conjunction with water. The cleaning action of this mixture is attributed to the action of micelles, tiny spheres coated on the outside with polar hydrophilic (water loving) groups, encasing a lipophilic (fat loving) pocket that can surround the grease particles, causing them to disperse in water. The lipophilic portion is made up of the long hydrocarbon chain from the fatty acid. In other words, whereas normally oil and water do not mix, the addition of soap allows oils to disperse in water and be rinsed away. Synthetic detergents operate by similar mechanisms to soap.
Effect of the alkali
The type of alkali metal used determines the kind of soap produced. Sodium soaps, prepared from sodium hydroxide, are firm, whereas potassium soaps, derived from potassium hydroxide, are softer or often liquid. Historically, potassium hydroxide was extracted from the ashes of bracken or other plants. Lithium soaps also tend to be hard—these are used exclusively in greases.
Effects of fats
Soaps are derivatives of fatty acids. Traditionally they have been made from triglycerides (oils and fats). Triglyceride is the chemical name for the triesters of fatty acids and glycerin. Tallow, i.e., rendered beef fat, is the most available triglyceride from animals. Its saponified product is called sodium tallowate. Typical vegetable oils used in soap making are palm oil, coconut oil, olive oil and laurel oil. Each species offers quite different fatty acid content and hence results in soaps of distinct feel. The seed oils give softer but milder soaps. Soap made from pure olive oil is sometimes called Castile soap or Marseille soap and is reputed for extra mildness. The term "Castile" is also sometimes applied to soaps from a mixture of oils, but a high percentage of olive oil.
Fatty acid content of various fats used for soap-making

Lauric acid
Myristic acid
Palmitic acid
Stearic acid
Oleic acid
Linoleic acid
Linolenic acid
fats
C12, saturated
C14 saturated
C16 saturated
C18 saturated
C18 monounsaturated
C18 diunsaturated
C18 triunsaturated
0
4
28
23
35
2
1
48
18
9
3
7
2
0
46
16
8
3
12
2
0
Laurel oil
54
0
0
0
15
17
0
0
0
11
2
78
10
0
0
1
3
2
58
9
23
History of cleansing soaps
Early history
The earliest recorded evidence of the production of soap-like materials dates back to around 2800 BC in Ancient Babylon. In the reign of Nabonidus (556–539 BCE) a recipe for soap consisted of uhulu [ashes], cypress [oil] and sesame [seed oil] "for washing the stones for the servant girls". A formula for soap consisting of water, alkali, and cassia oil was written on a Babylonian clay tablet around 2200 BC.
The Ebers papyrus (Egypt, 1550 BC) indicates that ancient Egyptians bathed regularly and combined animal and vegetable oils with alkaline salts to create a soap-like substance. Egyptian documents mention that a soap-like substance was used in the preparation of wool for weaving (need references).
Roman history
The word sapo, Latin for soap, first appears in Pliny the Elder's Historia Naturalis, which discusses the manufacture of soap from tallow and ashes, but the only use he mentions for it is as a pomade for hair; he mentions rather disapprovingly that the men of the Gauls and Germans were more likely to use it than their female counterparts.[7] Aretaeus of Cappadocia, writing in the first century AD, observes among "Celts, which are men called Gauls, those alkaline substances that are made into balls, called soap".
A popular belief encountered in some places claims that soap takes its name from a supposed Mount Sapo, where animal sacrifices were supposed to take place—tallow from these sacrifices would then have mixed with ashes from fires associated with these sacrifices and with water to produce soap. But there is no evidence of a Mount Sapo within the Roman world and no evidence for the apocryphal story. The Latin word sapo simply means "soap"; it was likely borrowed from an early Germanic language and is cognate with Latin sebum, "tallow", which appears in Pliny the Elder's account.[9] Roman animal sacrifices usually burned only the bones and inedible entrails of the sacrificed animals; edible meat and fat from the sacrifices were taken by the humans rather than the gods.
Zosimos of Panopolis ca. 300 AD describes soap and soapmaking. Galen describes soap-making using lye and prescribes washing to carry away impurities from the body and clothes. According to Galen, the best soaps were German, and soaps from Gaul were second best. This is a reference to true soap in antiquity.
Medieval history
Soap-makers in Naples were members of a guild in the late sixth century, and in the 8th century, soap-making was well known in Italy and Spain. The Carolingian capitulary De Villis, dating to around 800, representing the royal will of Charlemagne, mentions soap as being one of the products the stewards of royal estates are to tally. Soap-making is mentioned both as "women's work" and the produce of "good workmen" alongside other necessities such as the produce of carpenters, blacksmiths, and bakers.
15th–20th centuries


Ad for Pear' Soap, 1889

1922 magazine advertisement for Palmolive Soap.

 Liquid soap
In France, by the second half of the 15th century the semi-industrialized professional manufacture of soap was concentrated in a few centers of ProvenceToulon, Hyères and Marseille — which supplied the rest of France. In Marseilles, by 1525, production was concentrated in at least two factories, and soap production at Marseille tended to eclipse the other Provençal centers. English manufacture tended to concentrate in London.
Finer soaps were later produced in Europe from the 16th century, using vegetable oils (such as olive oil) as opposed to animal fats. Many of these soaps are still produced, both industrially and by small scale artisans. Castile soap is a popular example of the vegetable-only soaps derived by the oldest "white soap" of Italy.
In modern times, the use of soap has become universal in industrialized nations due to a better understanding of the role of hygiene in reducing the population size of pathogenic microorganisms. Industrially manufactured bar soaps first became available in the late eighteenth century, as advertising campaigns in Europe and the United States promoted popular awareness of the relationship between cleanliness and health.
Until the Industrial Revolution, soapmaking was conducted on a small scale and the product was rough. Andrew Pears started making a high-quality, transparent soap in 1789 in London. His son-in-law, Thomas J. Barratt, opened a factory in Isleworth in 1862. William Gossage produced low-price good-quality soap from the 1850s. Robert Spear Hudson began manufacturing a soap powder in 1837, initially by grinding the soap with a mortar and pestle. American manufacturer Benjamin T. Babbitt introduced marketing innovations that included sale of bar soap and distribution of product samples. William Hesketh Lever and his brother, James, bought a small soap works in Warrington in 1886 and founded what is still one of the largest soap businesses, formerly called Lever Brothers and now called Unilever. These soap businesses were among the first to employ large scale advertising campaigns.
Soap making processes
The industrial production of soap involves continuous processes, involving continuous addition of fat and removal of product. Smaller scale production involve the traditional batch processes. There are three variations: the cold-process, wherein the reaction takes place substantially at room temperature, the semi-boiled or hot-process, wherein the reaction takes place at near-boiling point, and the fully boiled process, wherein the reactants are boiled at least once and the glycerol recovered. The cold-process and hot-process (semi-boiled) are the simplest and typically used by small artisans and hobbyists producing handmade decorative soaps and similar. The glycerine remains in the soap and the reaction continues for many days after the soap is poured into moulds. In the hot-process method, also, the glycerine is left in but at the high temperature employed; the reaction is practically completed in the kettle, before the soap is poured into moulds. This process is simple and quick and is the one employed in small factories all over the world.
Handmade soap from the cold process also differs from industrially made soap in that an excess of fat is used, beyond that which is used to consume the alkali (in a cold-pour process this excess fat called "superfatting"), and the glycerine left in acts as moisturizing agent. However, it also makes the soap softer and less resistant to becoming "mushy" if left wet. Soap from the hot process, also, has left-over glycerine (as it is better to add too much oil and have left-over fat, than to add too much lye and have left-over lye) and the related pros and cons. Further addition of glycerine and processing of this soap produces glycerin soap. Superfatted soap, which contains excess fat, is more skin-friendly than one without extra fat. However, if too much fat is added, it can leave a "greasy" feel to their skin. Sometimes an emollient additive such as jojoba oil or shea butter is added "at trace" (in the cold process method, the point at which the saponification process is sufficiently advanced that the soap has begun to thicken) in the belief that nearly all the lye will be spent and it will escape saponification and remain intact, or, in the case of hot-process soap, after the initial oils have saponified, so that they remain unreacted in the finished soap. Superfatting can also be accomplished through a process known as "lye discount", whereby, instead of adding extra fats, the soap maker uses less alkali than required.
Cold process
Even in the cold-soapmaking process, some heat is usually required for the process. The temperature is usually raised sufficiently to ensure complete melting of the fat being used. The batch may be kept warm for some time after mixing to ensure that the alkali (hydroxide) is completely used up. This soap is safe to use after approximately 12–48 hours, but is not at its peak quality for use for several weeks.
Cold-process soapmaking requires exact measurements of lye and fat amounts and computing their ratio, using saponification charts to ensure that the finished product does not contain any excess hydroxide or too much free unreacted fat. Saponification charts should also be used in hot-processes, but are not necessary for the "fully boiled hot-process" soaping.
A cold-process soapmaker first looks up the saponification value of the fats being used on a saponification chart. This value is used to calculate the appropriate amount of lye. Excess unreacted lye in the soap will result in a very high pH and can burn or irritate skin. Not enough lye, and the soap is greasy. Most soap makers formulate their recipes with a 4–10% deficit of lye so that all of the lye is converted and that excess fat is left for skin conditioning benefits.
The lye is dissolved in water. Then oils are heated, or melted if they are solid at room temperature. Once the oils are liquified and the lye is fully dissolved in water, they are combined. This lye-fat mixture is mixed until the two phases (oils and water) are fully emulsified. Emulsification is most easily identified visually when the soap exhibits some level of "trace", which is the thickening of the mixture. (Modern-day amateur soapmakers often use a stick blender to speed this process). There are varying levels of trace. Depending on how additives will affect trace, they may be added at light trace, medium trace, or heavy trace. After much stirring, the mixture turns to the consistency of a thin pudding. "Trace" corresponds roughly to viscosity. Essential oils and fragrance oils can be added with the initial soaping oils, but solid additives such as botanicals, herbs, oatmeal, or other additives are most commonly added at light trace, just as the mixture starts to thicken.

Handmade soaps sold at a shop in Hyères, France

Traditional Marseille soap
The batch is then poured into moulds, kept warm with towels or blankets, and left to continue saponification for 12 to 48 hours. (Milk soaps or other soaps with sugars added are the exception. They typically do not require insulation, as the presence of sugar increases the speed of the reaction and thus the production of heat.) During this time, it is normal for the soap to go through a "gel phase," wherein the opaque soap will turn somewhat transparent for several hours, before once again turning opaque.
After the insulation period, the soap is firm enough to be removed from the mould and cut into bars. At this time, it is safe to use the soap, since saponification is in essence complete. However, cold-process soaps are typically cured and hardened on a drying rack for 2–6 weeks before use. During this cure period, trace amounts of residual lye is consumed by saponification and excess water evaporates.
Hot processes
Hot-processed soaps are created by encouraging the saponification reaction by adding heat to the reaction. This speeds the reaction. Unlike cold-processed soap, in hot-process soaping the oils are completely saponified by the end of the handling period, whereas with cold pour soap the bulk of the saponification happens after the oils and lye solution emulsification is poured into moulds.
In the hot-process, the hydroxide and the fat are heated and mixed together 80–100 °C, a little below boiling point, until saponification is complete, which, before modern scientific equipment, the soapmaker determined by taste (the sharp, distinctive taste of the hydroxide disappears after it is saponified) or by eye; the experienced eye can tell when gel stage and full saponification has occurred. Beginners can find this information through research and classes. Tasting soap for readiness is not recommended, as sodium and potassium hydroxides, when not saponified, are highly caustic.
An advantage of the fully boiled hot process in soap making is that the exact amount of hydroxide required need not be known with great accuracy. They originated when the purity of the alkali hydroxides were unreliable, as these processes can use even naturally found alkalis such as wood ashes and potash deposits. In the fully boiled process, the mix is actually boiled (100C+), and, after saponification has occurred, the "neat soap" is precipitated from the solution by adding common salt, and the excess liquid drained off. This excess liquid carries away with it much of the impurities and color compounds in the fat, to leave a purer, whiter soap, and with practically all the glycerine removed. The hot, soft soap is then pumped into a mould. The spent hydroxide solution is processed for recovery of glycerine.
Moulds
Many commercially available soap moulds are made of silicone or various types of plastic, although many soap making hobbyists may use cardboard boxes lined with a plastic film. Soaps can be made in long bars that are cut into individual portions, or cast into individual moulds.
Purification and finishing

A generic bar of soap, after purification and finishing.
In the fully boiled process on factory scale, the soap is further purified to remove any excess sodium hydroxide, glycerol, and other impurities, colour compounds, etc. These components are removed by boiling the crude soap curds in water and then precipitating the soap with salt.
At this stage, the soap still contains too much water, which has to be removed. This was traditionally done on a chill rolls, which produced the soap flakes commonly used in the 1940s and 1950s. This process was superseded by spray dryers and then by vacuum dryers.
The dry soap (approximately 6–12% moisture) is then compacted into small pellets or noodles. These pellets/noodles are now ready for soap finishing, the process of converting raw soap pellets into a saleable product, usually bars.
Soap pellets are combined with fragrances and other materials and blended to homogeneity in an amalgamator (mixer). The mass is then discharged from the mixer into a refiner, which, by means of an auger, forces the soap through a fine wire screen. From the refiner, the soap passes over a roller mill (French milling or hard milling) in a manner similar to calendering paper or plastic or to making chocolate liquor. The soap is then passed through one or more additional refiners to further plasticize the soap mass. Immediately before extrusion, the mass is passed through a vacuum chamber to remove any trapped air. It is then extruded into a long log or blank, cut to convenient lengths, passed through a metal detector, and then stamped into shape in refrigerated tools. The pressed bars are packaged in many ways.

(Azul e branco soap) – A bar of blue-white soap
Sand or pumice may be added to produce a scouring soap. The scouring agents serve to remove dead skin cells from the surface being cleaned. This process is called exfoliation. Many newer materials that are effective but do not have the sharp edges and poor particle size distribution of pumice are used for exfoliating soaps.
Nanoscopic metals are commonly added to certain soaps specifically for both colouration and anti-bacterial properties. Titanium powder is commonly used in extreme "white" soaps for these purposes; nickel, aluminium, and silver are less commonly used. These metals exhibit an electron-robbing behaviour when in contact with bacteria, stripping electrons from the organism's surface, thereby disrupting their functioning and killing them. Because some of the metal is left behind on the skin and in the pores, the benefit can also extend beyond the actual time of washing, helping reduce bacterial contamination and reducing potential odours from bacteria on the skin surface.


Toiletries: Soap Based Shaving Cream
Category
Toiletries (Shower & Bath, Oral care...) >> Shaving >> Shaving creams
Supplier
Dow Chemical
End consumer benefits
lubrication
moisturizing
Description
Toiletries: Soap Based Shaving Cream
Ingredients
Phase
INCI Name
Quantity (%)
A
7.00%
A
7.00%
A
8.00 %
B
6.00%
B
45.80%
B
0.10%
D
4.50%
D
5.00
E
7.00%
E
1.00%
E
3.00%
E
2.00%
E
3.00%
G
Blue River Conc.
0.20%
G
Menthol Oil
0.30%
G
0.10%
Properties
Appearance: Opaque
pH (as is): 9.0 – 9.5
Viscosity (cps): 5,000 – 6,000 RV#5 Spindle Speed: 10 rpm
Stability 3 months/5°C, 25°C & 45°C
Procedure
1.In a vessel, combine Kortacid 1299, Kortacid 1499 and Kortacid 1695. Heat the mixture at a constant temperature until the mixture just melts (60-65°C). This will be Phase A.

2. In a separate vessel, add deionized water, Versene NA (add in 10% wt. extra of deionized water) and potassium hydroxide pellets one after another and stir well with a glass rod until potassium hydroxide is completely dissolved. Heat the container of solution to a temperature of about 65°C – 70°C. This will be Phase B.

3. Add in Phase A slowly into Phase B with the help of an overhead stirrer at 500 rpm. Allow the saponification process to complete and observe that the final mixture is clear without any presence of clumps. This will be Phase C.

4. In a separate vessel, dilute ACULYN™ 38 with deionized water. Remove heat from mixture. Add the emulsion slowly and gradually into the Phase C. This will be Phase D.

5. Add the remaining ingredients of Phase E into Phase D. This will be Phase F.

6. Add in Blue River Conc., Menthol Oil and NEOLONE™ 950; Phase F is brought down to 45°C and below. This will be Phase G.

7. Top up deionized water to 100%.

Toiletries: Liquid Soap
Category
Toiletries (Shower & Bath, Oral care...) >> Shower & bath >> Toilet Soaps
Supplier
Tagra biotechnologies
End consumer benefits
moisturizing
protection
Description
Upon application the capsules containing a-tocopherol open releasing active Vitamin E on the body
Ingredients
Phase
INCI Name
Quantity (%)
A
0.2
A
0.4
A
30.0
A
6.0
A
6.0
A
3.0
A
2.0
A
1.0
A
2.0
A
0.4
A
0.5
A
0.5
A
pH = 5.5
Properties
-
Procedure
1. Dissolve Sodium Methylparaben in water.
2. Disperse Xanthan Gum, in water with strong agitation. Let it hydrate until uniform and completely dispersed.
3. Add the other ingredients with moderate agitation.

Toiletries: Synthetic Liquid Soap
Category
Toiletries (Shower & Bath, Oral care...) >> Shower & bath >> Toilet Soaps
Supplier
Croda
End consumer benefits
foam quality
Description
This liquid soap displays good foaming and cleansing action due to the synergistic effect Sodium Lauroyl Sarcosinate has with the other surfactants in the formula. PEG-75 Lanolin acts as a superfatting agent to keep skin from drying out. The ethylene glycol monostearate gives the system a pearly appearance.
Ingredients
Phase
INCI Name
Quantity (%)
A
7.0
A
5.0
A
18.0
A
2.5
A
2.5
A
1.0
A
61.5
A
1.0
A
Ethylene Glycol Monostearate
1.5
Properties
-
Procedure
Combine ingredients with mixing and heat to 75-80°C. Cool to desired fill
temperature.

Toiletries: Soap Bar - "LemOlive"
Category
Toiletries (Shower & Bath, Oral care...) >> Shower & bath >> Toilet Soaps
Supplier
Eckart
End consumer benefits

Description
Soap Bar - "LemOlive"
Ingredients
Phase
INCI Name
Quantity (%)
A
98.10%
A
0.50%
A
0.20%
A
0.50%
A
0.50%
A
0.20%
Properties
-
Procedure
1. Melt Zetesap at a temperature of 70°C

2. Add the Rest of phase A and mix until uniform (avoid foam formation)

3. Pour into the mould and cool down.

Toiletries: Antibacterial, Liquid Hand Soap
Category
Toiletries (Shower & Bath, Oral care...) >> Hand wash
Supplier
Dow Chemical
End consumer benefits
cushioning effect
softness
Description
Hand cleanser also has antibacterial properties via the incorporation of the active ingredient triclosan.
Ingredients
Phase
INCI Name
Quantity (%)
A
Sodium Laureth-2 Sulfate (26% Active)
28.00%
A
5.00%
A
3.60%
A
0.50%
A
0.20%
A
0.10%
A
60.80%
A
q.s.
A
q.s.
Properties
Crystal-clear, Imparts a soft, lightly conditioning velvety afterfeel
Procedure
1. Prepare a premix solution by dispersing UCARE™ Polymer JR-400 in room temperature water with agitation.

2. Heat to 50-60°. In a separate container, combine the remaining ingredients and heat to 45-50°C to dissolve the Cocamide MEA and triclosan.

3. Mix until uniform.

4. Add the premix solution with continued agitation.

5. Cool to 40°C and add preservative and fragrance.

6. Adjust pH to 6.5 with citric acid.

Toiletries: Antibacterial Liquid Hand Soap
Category
Toiletries (Shower & Bath, Oral care...) >> Hand wash
Supplier
Lubrizol Advanced Materials Inc.
End consumer benefits

Description
This liquid hand soap demonstrates the excellent suspending properties and clarity achieved using Acrylates Copolymer (30%).
Ingredients
Phase
INCI Name
Quantity (%)
A
49.30
A
7.00
A
25.00
A
0.80 (q.s. to pH 6.6)
B
8.00
B
4.00
B
0.10
B
2.00
C
2.00
C
0.50
D
0.30
D
1.00
Properties
Appearance: Clear liquid with suspended beads; pH: 6.4 - 6.7; Viscosity, (mPa·s) :3,000 - 4,400; Yield Value (dyne/cm2): 60 - 80; Turbidity (NTU): 50 - 60 Stability: Passed 3 months @ 45°C
Procedure
1. Combine PART A: Add Acrylates Copolymer (30%) to deionized water. Add Ammonium Lauryl Sulfate (30%) with gentle mixing.
2. Neutralize to pH 6.5 with TEA.
3. Add PART B ingredients to the batch in order.
4. Pre-mix propylene glycol and Triclosan.
5. Add remaining ingredients with gentle mixing.
6. Adjust pH to 6.5 with TEA if necessary.

Toiletries: Mild Commercial Strength Hand Soap
Category
Toiletries (Shower & Bath, Oral care...) >> Hand wash
Supplier
Mason Chemical company
End consumer benefits
foam booster
mildness
Description
Lauramine Oxide is an effective foam booster in this pH neutral, mild hand soap.
Ingredients
Phase
INCI Name
Quantity (%)
A
10.0
A
Ammonium Lauryl Ether Sulfate, 60%
5.0
A
0.5
A
1.0
A
Diethyleneglycol butylether
1.0
A
0.08
A
0.35
A
3.0
A
q.s.
Properties
-
Procedure
Mix in order listed.

Toileries: Pearlized liquid soap
Category
Toiletries (Shower & Bath, Oral care...) >> Shower & bath >> Toilet Soaps
Supplier
Reaxis Inc.
End consumer benefits
moisturizing
Description
Moisturizing cleanser for pump dispenser applications
Ingredients
Phase
INCI Name
Quantity (%)
A
40.00
A
3.00
A
0.30
A
6.40
A
3.00
A
2.50
A
Preservative
q.s.
Properties
-
Procedure
Mix the ingredients in the given order.

Toiletries: Syndet bar soap
Category
Toiletries (Shower & Bath, Oral care...) >> Shower & bath >> Toilet Soaps
Supplier
BASF
End consumer benefits
mildness
softness
Description
Mild cleansing bar, which provides a rich lather and soft skin feel.
Ingredients
Phase
INCI Name
Quantity (%)
A
80.0
A
10.0
A
3.0
A
5.0
A
2.0
Properties
-
Procedure
With all ingredients in the vessel, heat to 70°C. Begin propellor agitation when the batch becomes fluid. Maintain slow mixing until all solids are dissolved and the batch becomes a uniform, nonviscous, opaque fluid. Fill molds, allow to solidify.

Toilet Soaps - Bar Soap with Xirona® Kiwi Rose
Category
Toiletries (Shower & Bath, Oral care...) >> Shower & bath >> Toilet Soaps
Supplier
EMD Chemicals
End consumer benefits

Description
Bar Soap with Xirona® Kiwi Rose
Ingredients
Phase
INCI Name
Quantity (%)
A
1.00%
A
0.33%
B
98.67%
Properties
-
Procedure
Combine ingredients of phase B in soap mixing apparatus. Refine the soap mass through an appropriate
screen. Extrude the soap mass. From the resulting mass into soap pellets. Add phase A and mix thoroughly
with phase B. Extrude the soap mass again and form into saop bars.

Toiletries: Liquid Pearl Bath Soap
Category
Toiletries (Shower & Bath, Oral care...) >> Shower & bath >> Toilet Soaps
Supplier
Engelhard-BASF
End consumer benefits
jewel-like
Description
Soap with pearlescent appearance
Ingredients
Phase
INCI Name
Quantity (%)
A
0.60
A
35.00
A
0.20
A
q.s.
Properties
Color: Eggwhite; Odor: Characteristic; Appearance: Pearlescent; Viscosity: 340 ± 30 cps; pH : 7.1 ± 0.5; Specific Gravity: 1.0 ± 0.10
Procedure
I. Disperse Xanthan Gum in water.
II. Add TEA-Lauryl Sulfate with stirring.
III. Continue stirring and add Mica ; Titanium Dioxide.
IV. When well dispersed, add other ingredients and continue to stir
until uniform.

Toiletries: Conditioning Bar Soap
Category
Toiletries (Shower & Bath, Oral care...) >> Shower & bath >> Toilet Soaps
Supplier
Amerchol Corporation
End consumer benefits

Description
POLYOX™ WSR N-60K provides excellent slip during application to this conditioning soap bar. The combination of Glucam E-10 and Modulan provides emollience and skin conditioning properties. Other benefits of this additive package are ease of extrusion, improved mold release and reduction of cracking.
Ingredients
Phase
INCI Name
Quantity (%)
A
POLYOX WSR N-60K (PEG-45M)
0.10%
A
Glucam E-10 (Methyl Gluceth-10)
1.00%
A
Modulan (Acetylated Lanolin)
1.00%
A
0.50%
A
Antioxidant
0.07%
A
1.00%
A
Soap Base 80/20
96.33%
A
q.s.
Properties
-
Procedure
Combine and mix ingredients in suitable equipment until uniform at room
temperature. Modulan may require gentle heating in order to obtain optimum
dispersion throughout soap base. Use soap plodder and extrude mass through
slightly heated extrusion plate high gloss finish. Press ribbon to obtain soap
bar.

Toiletries: Clear Liquid Hand Soap
Category
Toiletries (Shower & Bath, Oral care...) >> Hand wash
Supplier
Stepan
End consumer benefits
foam quality
Description
This liquid hand soap provides good cleansing and foaming.
Ingredients
Phase
INCI Name
Quantity (%)
A
q.s. to 100
B
q.s.
B
q.s.
B
q.s.
Properties
Appearance: Liqht yellow liquid; pH (as is): 5.5-6.5Viscosity Profile: as is: 25 cps; 0.5% sodium chloride: 50 cps; 1.0% sodium chloride: 50 cps; 3.0% sodium chloride:800 cps
Procedure
Add the components in Phase A to D.I. water and blend until clear. Adjust pH to 5.5 - 6.5 with citric acid. Add fragrance, dye and preservative, if desired. Adjust to desired viscosity.

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