Senin, 02 Januari 2012

Petunjuk Formulasi Skin Care

    1.EYE MAKE-UP REMOVER FORMULATION
Before starting...
Eye make-up remover formulation requires specific precautions. Indeed eyes and eye contours are particularly sensitive to irritations. There are tipically two types of eye make-up removers:
  • Cleansing milks based on fluid oil/water emulsions
  • Cleansing waters which are formulated in the form of an aqueous solution into which ultra-mild surfactants are dispersed.
Required qualities:
  • Perfect tolerance, non-irritant for the cornea
  • Sufficient cleansing power to remove eye makeup without insisting too much
  • Pleasant or neutral odor
  • Non-greasy
  • Non-tacky

 Typical Ingredients (cleansing water)

 Usual Method
Must Use

Mild surfactants/ cleansers
1-5 %
Deionized Water
Q.S.*

Usual

Humectants
3-30%
Emollients
1-5 %
PH Buffers
Q.S. proper pH
Preservatives
0-0,02 %

Optional

Surfactants/ solubilizers
0-1 %
Perfume
0,5-1 %
Active agents
Q.S.
Colouring agents
Q.S.
Floral water
1-5 %
Disperse all hydrophilic ingredients in water under slow stirring;some surfactants should be dispersed in hot water (40°C°). Oil-soluble ingredients like perfume and some kinds of preservatives should be added in the aqueous solution by pre-mixing them with a small amount of solubilizers/ surfactants, in order to obtain homogeneity and clarity. Adjust the pH of the solution.


Tips
What are the two main requirements to be respected in order to prevent the irritations?
  • pH of product must be equal to pH of tears. pH of tears is slightly alkaline:7.4 (7.0-7.8). So, product should contain agents for establishing the same pH as tears
  • Isotonicity : Products should contain tonicity agents to establish isotonicity with tears (saline concentration of product should be equal to saline concentration of tears)

Sample Recipe: Mild eye make up remover

Ingredients
Method
Composition
Function
% (w/w)

Phase A
Deionized water

Q.S.
Polyquaternium-10
Active/ conditioning agent
0.02
PEG-120 methyl glucose dioleate
Mild surfactant/ emollient
1.70
PEG-120 methyl glucose sesquistearate
Mild surfactant
1.50
PPG-10 methyl glucose ether
Mild surfactant/ emollient
1.30
Sodium cocoamphopropionate
Mild surfactant
3.50
Phenoxyethanol, chlorphenesin, glycerin, methylparaben, benzoic acid
Preservative/ blend
0.7
Triethanolamine
pH buffer
Q.S.
Phase A  : Disperse the polyquaternium in the water. Heat the mixture to 45°C to disperse PEG-120 methyl glucose dioleate and PEG-120 methyl glucose sesquistearate. Remove from heat and add the remaining ingredients. Adjust the pH to 7,4 with the TEA.
Properties
Clear solution, mildness, pH = 7,4



To go further

Floral waters content
Rose water, chamomile and corn flower extracts can bring soothing and reduce puffiness that may occur during cleansing.
Preservatives content
Irritations are often due to preservatives. Monodose packaging allows a dramatic reduction of the required percentage of preservative in the product.
* Q.S. (quantum sufficit) = as much as suffices

 
 
   2.FORMULATIONS BASICS: FACIAL CREAM

Before starting
  1. Typical Ingredients / Usual Method & Tips
  2. Sample Recipe
  3. To go further
Before starting...
Facial care creams formulations include many kinds of formulations, depending on the nature of the skin or on the desired effects. Either protection against pollution and oxidation is needed or anti-wrinkle activity. Actives may also be added in order to correct an oily/ greasy skin, a dry or a sensitive skin.. Many formulations are basically Oil in Water emulsions or Water in Oil emulsions. The typical skin care emulsion is now more likely to be o/w than w/o. Technology has advanced to the point where w/o stable emulsions can be prepared at room temperature.
Required qualities :
  • Neutral or pleasant odor and color
  • Easy to spread, pleasant feeling during application
  • Easy penetration
  • Non-oily/ non-greasy after application
  • Non comedogenic
  • Well tolerance/ non-allergenic
  • Bring hydration

 Typical Ingredients

 Usual Method
Must Use

Emulsifiers
2-6%
Emollients
10-35 %
Thickener
0.1-1%
Deionized Water
Q.S.

Usual

Preservatives
0.2-1 %
Humectants
1-8 %
Consistency factors
1-6%
Antioxidants
0.01-0.05%
UV filters
0.01-0.5%

Optional

Chelating Agents
0-0.02 %
Fragrance
0.1-1 %
Active agents
0.1-2%
Colouring agents
Q.S.
Aesthetic enhancers
0.1-5%
Aqueous phase: Thickener is dispersed in cold or warm water at 75-80°C (depending on the recommandations of the producer) under intensive stirring, until a homogeneous gel is formed. This first phase is combined with the oily phase (Lipophilic components : emulsifiers + emollients + consistency factors) that has also been melted and heated to the same temperature. Mix under intensive stirring until emulsion is formed. Then mix gently while emulsion is being cooled. Sensitive components like actives, special additives and preservatives are added after the mixture has been cooled (40-30°C) to keep their properties intact.


Tips
How to vary the consistency of your cream?
- Changing the % of the oily phase allows variations in the final viscosity of your preparation. For Oil in Water emulsion the greater the oily phase the higher the viscosity. Inversely for Water in Oil or Water in Silicone emulsion : the greater the aqueous phase the higher the viscosity.
- Vary the % of thickeners (gelling agents or consistency agents like waxes). However some stabilizers can prevent settling without increasing the viscosity.


Sample Recipe : "Vanishing cream"
Ingredients
Method
Composition
Function
% (w/w)

Phase A
Glyceryl stearate
Emulsifier/ consistency agent
4.00
Stearic acid
Emulsifier/ consistency agent
16.0
Ceteareth-12
Emulsifier
3.00
Octyldodecanol
Emollient
3.00
Paraffinum liquidum
Emollient
3.00
Phase B
Triethanolamine
pH buffer
0.50
Deionized Water

69.3
Phase C
Phenoxyethanol, methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, butyl-, isopropyl paraben
Preservative
0.7
Fragrance

0.5
Phase A  and phase B have to be mixed and heated separately to 80°C. Add slowly B into A under intensive stirring until the emulsion is formed. Then add more quickly the rest of the phase and keep stirring during a few minutes. Continue stirring gently until the temperature is at 40°C. Then Add phase C. Keep stirring the mixture slowly while it is being cooled.
Properties:
Cream with a pearlescent aspect

To go further..

Dry skin formulation
Ingredients choice criteria:
- Slow down the TEWL (Transepidermal water loss) by using occlusive emollients in the oily phase (squalane, beeswax, triglycerides, essential fatty acids, silicones..)
- Reenforce or reconstitute the NMF (Natural moisturizing factor) with adequate additives (sodium lactate, sodium PCA)
- Bring humectancy with hygroscopic components (urea, allantoin, polyols, hyaluronic acid..)
Enhance aesthetic
As indicated above, aesthetic enhancers may be added: eg- pearlescent pigments, texturing agents, soft-feeling agents like silicone elastomers. The aim is to obtain a product which is sense-awakening !

 


3.FOUNDATION MAKEUP FORMULATION

Before starting
  1. Typical Ingredients / Usual Method & Tips
  2. Sample Recipe
  3. To go further
Before starting...
A little bit of history...
Foundations are coloring preparations used to enhance the aspect of the skin by giving uniformity to the complexion and concealing blemishes. The origin of face makeup appears with the Egyptians 4000 BC: Women applied on their faces a paste composed of beeswax or sheet's fat added with minerals .
Foundation formulation is quite complex. Typically, it is an emulsion to which various pigments and powders have been added. The choice is also limited to a few types of permitted pigments and dyes.
Required qualities:
  • Easy to spread
  • Homogeneous
  • Well adhesion to the skin
  • Covering power
  • Permeable film to allow gas exchanges
  • Non-irritant, non-allergenic
  • Non-shiny, non-greasy
  • Non comedogenic
  • Pleasant or neutral odor
  • Pleasant texture, creaminess


 Typical Ingredients

 Usual Method
Must Use

Emulsifiers
1-6 %
Emollients
8-20 %
Thickener (s)
0,1-2 %
Humectants
4-7%
Pigments (opacifiying & coloring)
2-10 %
Powders
4-10 %
Deionized Water
Q.S.

Usual

Preservatives
0,1-1 %
Antioxidants
0,01-0,05 %
Consistency agents
0,5-20 %
Chelating Agents
0-0,02 %

Optional

Perfume
0,5-1 %
Active agents
0,1-1%
Disperse hydrophilic thickener(s) into warm water under intensive stirring until a homogeneous gel is formed. Add other hydrophilic components. Heat this phase to 80°C. Pulverize pigments and powders and add them to the water phase under intensive stirring. Emulsifiers, emollients & lipophilic consistency factors, constituting the oily phase, are mixed and heated to 80°C. This third phase is added to the mixture (water phase + pigments) in order to form the emulsion. Sensitive components like actives, special additives and preservatives are added after the mixture has been cooled (40-30°C) to keep their properties intact.



Tips
Powders of dry vegetable extracts can be used in such formulations to bring specific activity.

Sample Recipe : Sand rose Liquid Makeup

Ingredients
Method
Composition
Function
% (w/w)

Phase A
Mineral oil
Emollient
6,0
Stearic acid
Emulsifier
2,2
Glyceryl stearate
Emulsifier
1,8
Lanolin alcohol
Emollient
3.0
Cetearyl isononanoate
Emollient
1,0
Isostearic acid
Emulsifier
0,5
Phase B
Cellulose gum
Thickener
0.2
Xanthan gum
Thickener
0.2
Propylene glycol
Humectant
4,5
Triethanolamine
PH buffer, neutralizer
0.9
Deionized water

Q.S.*
Phase C
Iron oxides, brown (CI 77492, 77491, 77499)
Abrasive
0.2
Titanium dioxide
Opacifying pigment
2.0
Talc
Powder/ texturing agent
7.8
Phase D
Phenoxyethanol, methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, butylparaben, isobutylparaben
Preservative
0.7
Phase A  : Heat components to 80°C until completely uniform.
Phase B : Disperse gums into water under intensive stirring until complete dispersion, then add propylene glycol and TEA. Heat phase B to the same temperature as phase A while mixing gently. Pulverize phase C and add to phase B under moderate stirring until it is homogeneous. Then add phase A to (B+C) under intensive stirring. Maintain gentle agitation while it is being cooled until 40-30°C. Add preservative. Mix gently until it is completely cooled.
Properties
Texture: creamy oil/ water emulsion, color: beige



To go further

Key-ingredients
Particles size is important as well as rheologic properties of the product. In fact, a proper viscosity guarantees a good spreadibility on the skin. Pigments particles size is varied in order to obtain more matt effect. However particles size in a foundation should be chosen respecting two rules: - Not too small, it would accentuate little wrinkles - not too large, it would be too occlusive.


Treatment foundations
Some additives can provide additional qualities to foundations:
  • Protection against pollution, UV..
  • Non-staining on clothes, long-lasting
  • Activity: hydrating..

Pigments are non-soluble components
Dyes which are soluble in the liquid phase should not stain permanently on the skin. Thanks to their non-solubility neither in water nor in oil, insoluble pigments are used in decorative cosmetics. Moreover they are considered to be non-irritant to mucous membranes. TiO2 is commonly used as an opacifier.
* Q.S. (quantum sufficit) = as much as suffices



4.FORMULATION BASICS: LIPSTICKS
  1. Before starting
  2. Typical Ingredients / Usual Method & Tips
  3. Sample Recipe
  4. To go further
Before starting...
A little bit of history...
We're tracking the origin of lip coloration within the high antiquity. Egyptian women used to apply on their lips some dyes based on red blood stone or henna. However the origin of the lipstick such as we know it today begins within the end of the XIXth century. At this time, actresses used to use mixtures of beeswax, butter, vine grape extracts or other kinds of natural dyes to be applied on their lips. Synthetic dyes discovery at the beginning of the XXth century allowed for a considerable pallet of coloring nuances as well as the emancipation of the lipstick.
Required qualities :
  • Consistency must be stable whatever the variations in temperature
  • Must be applied easily on lips
  • Must leave a mark as soon as lightly applied
  • Musn't break during the application
  • Uniformity of the film
  • Creaminess and slip are needed, without greasiness
  • Sufficient adhesion is required
  • Musn't leave marks when wiped
  • Easy to remove
  • Pleasant taste and odour
  • Non-irritant, non-allergenic

 Typical Ingredients

 Usual Method
Must Use

Consistency factors/ Waxes
20-55%
Emollients (liquid)
25-70%
Pigments (color)
0.5-10%

Usual

Thickeners/ stabilizers
0-1%
Preservatives
0-1 %
Antioxidants
0.05-1%
Pigments (special effects)
5-25%

Optional

Sunscreens/ UV filters
0-2%
Fragrances/ Flavoring agents
0-1%
Active agents
0-1%
Waxes and emollients are mixed and melted until 80°C. Pigments may often have to be premixed separately in liquid emollients mixture. Premixed pigments dispersions should preferably be used, otherwise pigment dispersion must be as homogeneous as possible. The mixture can be added to the first hot phase or once the mix has cooled. Then pour the warm mixture (temperature must be 10°C above its melting point) into the appropriate moulds. Moulds must be placed into the refrigerator.


 Tips
How to obtain the wanted mattifying/ shining effect in your lipstick?
Mixing the correct amount of pigments every time and getting the desired color and effect is an art of its own. Pigments particles size and nature is varied in order to obtain more shine or more matt effect. The more the distribution is large, the more the mattifying effect is high. Mattifying effect is associated with adhesion (long-lasting). Cosmeticians would like to obtain lipsticks which join the brilliance with the long-lasting effect to satisfy consumers. These two properties are contradictory.

Sample Recipe : Purple fresh kiss

Ingredients
Method
Composition
Function
% (w/w)

Phase A
Beeswax
Consistency factor/ Wax
6
Carnauba Wax
Consistency factor/ Wax
3
Candelilla Wax
Consistency factor/ Wax
7
Ozokerite
Consistency factor/ Wax
4
Polyisobutene
Emollient (liquid)
30
Castor oil
Emollient (liquid)
Q.S.
Mica
Pigments
3
Red 7 Lake
Pigments
2.25
Phase B
Tocopherol acetate
Antioxidant
0.05
BHT
Antioxidant
0.03
Peppermint
Flavoring agent
0.3
Phase A  : Components are mixed and heated into a glass beaker to 70°C. Add Phase B components while stirring gently after have removed Phase A from heat until the mix is homogeneous. Then pour the liquid mixture into chosen molds.




To go further

 
Consistency agents/ waxes
Lipsticks are made of a mixture of waxes ("white paste or body"), oils and pigments. Waxes are chosen considering their melting point (which varies from 50°C to 90°C) and their specific properties. They bring hardness and shining. They enhance stability and consistency, and provide richness to formulations. Most animal origin waxes were used in the past. They're now widely replaced by synthetic or vegetal origin waxes (carnauba, candelilla..).


Pigments are non-soluble components
Thanks to their non-solubility neither in water nor in oil pigments are permitted in decorative cosmetics. Moreover they are considered to be non-irritant to mucous membranes. TiO2 is commonly used as an opacifier. Pigments derived from mica are used and often coated with titanium dioxide to enhance the range of colors available


What kind of lipstick was called the kiss of death?
The ancient Egyptians used for lip rouge a reddish purple mercuric plant dye. They didn't know it was potentially poisonous . Talk about the kiss of death!



5.   MASCARA FORMULATION
  1. Before starting
  2. Typical Ingredients / Usual Method & Tips
  3. Sample Recipe
  4. To go further
Before starting...
Mascaras are used to enhance the eyelashes. They were once prepared with oil and lamp-black. There are two main types of mascara formulation:
  • water-based mascaras, known as "cream mascaras," which are in the form of an oil/water emulsion
  • anhydrous mascaras, known as "waterproof mascaras", which are formulated in the form of a dispersion of waxes in non-aqueous solvents.
Required qualities
  • Proper creaminess and slip are needed, without greasiness
  • Easy application
  • Consistency must be stable whatever the variations in temperature
  • Uniformity
  • Filmogenic
  • Covering power
  • No build-up
  • Sufficient adhesion is required
  • Fast drying after application but musn't dry in the container
  • Water-resistant
  • Easy to remove
  • Non allergenic, non-irritant

 Typical Ingredients

 Usual Method
Must Use

Deionized Water
Q.S.*
Emulsifiers
3-10 %
Consistency factors/ Waxes
7-20 %
Emollients (liquid)
25-70%
Pigments (color)
0.5-10%

Usual

Thickeners/ stabilizers
0-1%
Preservatives
0-1 %
Adhesion promoters/ Film formers(resins)
2-8%

Optional

Water-resistant agents
0-1%
Pigments (special effects)
0-1%
Fragrances
0-1%
Active agents
0-1%
Waxes and emollients are mixed and melted until 80°C. Pigments have to be added and dispersed in this oily mixture. Hydrophilic thickeners like gums or synthetic polymers are dispersed in hot water. Some of them require neutralization. This second phase is heated and combined with the oily phase to form the emulsion.





 Tips
How to obtain light mascaras with water-resistant effect?
Some water-based mascaras may also have a waterproof effect. A large amount of latex should be added to the oil/water emulsion. It should be noted however that considering the low solids content, this type of mascaras is characterized by a weaker makeup power than anhydrous mascaras.

Sample Recipe : Natural look mascara

Ingredients
Method
Composition
Function
% (w/w)

Phase A
Water

Q.S.
Hydroethylcellulose
Thickener
0.50
Triethanolamine
PH Buffer/ Neutralizer
2.00
Butylene glycol
Humectant
8.00
Phase B
Iron oxides (CI 77499)
Pigment
10.0
Phase C
Glyceryl stearate
Emulsifier
2.50
Carnauba Wax
Consistency factor
4.00
Beeswax
Consistency factor
5.00
Candelilla Wax
Consistency factor
1.00
Stearic acid
Emulsifier
5.00
Phase D
Acrylates copolymer
Film former
5.00
Dimethicone
Waterproofing agent
0.5
Phenoxyethanol, methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, butylparaben, isobutylparaben
Preservative
0.7
Phase A  : Add slowly hydroxyethylcellulose in warm water (40°C). Mix until uniformly dispersed. Add the triethanolamine, mix until the gel is homogeneous, and add butylene glycol. Mixture has to be heated until 75°C in order to be combined with Part C. Mix all the ingredients of Part C and melt to 75-80°C. Then add the pigments (Part B) to C and mix until the pigments are completely wetted and uniform. Combine with part A to form the emulsion. Continue mixing (slowly) and begin cooling. Add dimethicone, polymer and preservative. Continue cooling to room temperature.




To go further

 
Volumizing and lengthening mascaras
Silk fibers may be added to these types of mascaras. They provide bodyfying volume and lengthen eyelashes.

 
Key criteria
Rheology control helps optimize the spotted amount during application, thus helping control the thickness of eyelashes.










* Q.S. (quantum sufficit) = as much as suffices




 
 6.FORMULATION BASICS: NAIL POLISH

Before starting
  1. Typical Ingredients / Usual Method & Tips
  2. Sample Recipe
  3. To go further
Before starting...
Nail polishes are preparations whose main function is to color and enhance aesthetics of both hands and feet, giving them a more attractive aspect. Nail polish basically consists of pigments suspended in a volatile solvent to which film formers have been added.
Required qualities :
  • Must have an important adhesive power
  • Shining film
  • Easy application, easy spreadibility
  • Homogeneity
  • Fast drying
  • High covering power
  • Plasticity and flexibility to prevent cracks
  • Hardness

 Typical Ingredients

 Usual Method
Must Use

Film former (primary)
10-20%
Film former/ resin (secondary)
2-10%
Pigments
1-5%
Plasticizers
3-10%
Solvents
30-50%
Diluents
5-15%
Thixotropic agents
0-1%

Usual

UV filters
0-0.1%
Preservatives
0.1-1%
Antioxidants
0-0.1%
Pigments (special effects)
1-5%

Optional

Fragrance
0-1%
Active agents
0-1%
Thixotropic agents are dispersed in part of the solvents and mixture is added with the diluents and the others components. Pre-wet the pigments by making a 1:1 or 1:2 premix in carrier (oils or solvents) under slow stirring conditions. Controlled speed stirrers with a paddle or propeller type agitator blades are recommended to disperse pigments.



 Special effects
How to obtain special effects?
You can vary effects in nail polish through the addition of both organic colors and pigments. Pigments must be maintained within the preparation with suspending agents, such as stearalkonium hectorite. Specialty additives may also be added in order to create special effects: sparkling, shimmering, frosted, metallescent... Nylon or rayon fibers can be added for nail-strengthening purposes. Aluminum is widely used in nail polishes. It can add some sparkle and flop effects when using the larger particle sizes.

Sample Recipe

Ingredients
Method
Composition
Function
% (w/w)

Phase A
Stearylalkonium Bentonite
Thixotropic agent
0.90
n-Butyl Acetate
Solvent
40.0
Isopropyl Alcohol
Diluent
8.4
Ethyl Acetate
Solvent
18.0
Nitrocellulose
Film former (primary)
15.0
Polyester Resin
Film former (secondary)
9.0
Dibutyl Phthalate
Plasticizer
5.0
Camphor
Plasticizer
1.7
Phase B
Aluminium powder (and) Ethyl Acetate
Pigments (metallescent)
2
Phase A  : 1. Disperse the stearalkonium bentonite in butyl acetate under intensive stirring and add isopropyl alcohol. Add the others solvents, plasticizers and film formers to the mixture.
Add the Phase B by slow stirring and mix slowly until the mixture is homogeneous.



  To go further

 
Key ingredients and allergy
Nitrocellulose is the most commonly used primary film-forming agent in nail polishes. It produces a shiny, tough, nontoxic film that adheres well to the nail plate. The oxygen permeable film allows gas exchange between the atmosphere and the nail. Resins are added to increase the flexibility of the film at a ratio of about two parts nitrocellulose to one part resin by weight. The most popular resin used to enhance the nitrocellulose film is toluene-sulfonamide-formaldehyde. However, it might be the source of allergic contact dermatitis. Toluene is notably considered as a strong sensitizing agent, a toxic inhalant, and has a high risk of causing severe contact dermatitis and eye irritation. Hypoallergenic nail varnishes use polyester resin or cellulose acetate butyrate.


Plasticizers increase flexibility after solvents have volatilized, reducing cracking in the polish. Dibutyl phthalate has been used as a plasticizer for years.


7.SHAMPOO FORMULATION
  1. Before starting
  2. Typical Ingredients / Usual Method & Tips
  3. Sample Recipe
  4. To go further
Before starting...
A shampoo is a colloidal dispersion of various surfactants in water. Base components of a classical shampoo are cleansing agents, thickeners and water. Most of the time additives and adjuvants are added to the formula in order to help cleansing, enhance aesthetics properties, foaming or make hair shine. Indeed, beauty brought by the product is as important as cleanliness: As long as it is an hygiene product, a shampoo has to maintain a pleasant feel of the hair. Moreover, in the mind of many consumers cleanliness is often associated with foam quantity...So...Shampoos have to foam!
Required qualities:
  • Cleansing properties without eliminating all surface lipids
  • Foaming properties
  • Make hair shine and soft
  • Make hair easy to comb
  • Antistatic
  • Pleasant odor
  • Non-irritant, non-stinging

 Typical Ingredients

 Usual Method
Must Use

Surfactants
15-30%
Foam Stabilizers
1-4 %
Thickener
0-5%
Deionized Water
Q.S.

Usual

Preservatives
0,1-1 %
Humectants
1-5 %
PH Buffers
Q.S. neutral pH
Chelating Agents
0-0,02 %

Optional

Pearlescing/ opacifying agents
0,2-2%
Perfume
0,5-1 %
Active agents
0-2%
Colouring agents
Q.S.
Conditioning agents
Q.S. desired effect
UV Filter
0.01-0.1%
Disperse hydrophilic thickener(s) in water under intensive stirring, until a homogeneous gel is formed. Then add the surfactants and the other ingredients and mix gently until the product becomes homogeneous. Oil-soluble ingredients (some preservatives, perfume..) should be added by pre-mixing them with a small amount of surfactants.



 Tips
How to significantly reduce the overall irritation of your mixture?
By increasing the betaïne surfactants %. When these ones are combined with fatty alcohol sulfates, they form large anionic-cationic complex which lowers irritation.
Part of anionic surfactants can also be replaced by non-ionic surfactants like alkylpolyglucosides.


Sample Recipe: Clear shampoo
- TOP -
Ingredients
Method
Composition
Function
% (w/w)

Phase A
Acrylates/ C10-30 Alkyl Acrylate Crosspolymer
Thickener
1.20
Propylene glycol
Humectant
6.00
NaOH (18%)
Neutralizer/PH Buffer
0.40
Sodium laureth sulfate (28% active matter)
Surfactant (primary)
30.00
Propylene glycol, Diazolidinyl urea, Methylparaben, Propylparaben
Preservative
1.00
Deionized Water
Diluent
Q.S.
Phase B
Benzophenone-4
UV Filter
0.02
Deionized Water
Diluent
5.00
Tetrasodium EDTA
Chelating agent
0.10
Phase C
NaOH (18%)
Neutralizer/PH Buffer
2.40
Cocamidopropyl Betaïne
Foam booster (secondary surfactant)
4.00
FD & C Blue No. 1 (C.I. 42090)
Dye
0.002
Phase A  : Heat Water (40°C), disperse thickener under intensive stirring. Reduce mixing speed after polymer is dispersed. Then add propylene glycol and NaOH solution. Mix until homogeneity. Add other ingredients of Part A in order.
Mix Phase B ingredients in hot water (30-40°C) and add into Phase A. Add other ingredients in order. Mix until it is uniform.
Properties
Clear, viscous gel, pH 6.5, viscosity = 5500-6500 cP



To go further

Specific substances may be incorporated in order to provide a restoring and protecting effect on hair like natural and modified lipids, amino acids and silicones. They may also have reconstituting effect on the integrity and health of the hair and scalp - such as preventing dandruff and excessive sebaceous secretion.
Baby Shampoos
They should be based on amphoteric surfactants (imidazolinic derivatives or betaïnes, 75 to 100% of total surfactants)


Greasy Hair Shampoo
Its first mission is to eliminate excessive sebum without eliminating all surface lipids. Following actives may be used:

- sulfur in order to regulate sebum secretion

- clays to absorb fats


Dry Hair Shampoo
A dry scalp leads to a dry aspect of the hair because of lack of sebum. Cleansing base is composed with a ternary mixture of surfactants (anionic, amphoteric and non-ionic). Formulation is completed by superfatting agents: castor oil, lecithins..


Antidandruff Shampoos
Formulae contain antimicrobial and keratolytic actives (zinc pyrithione, piroctone olamine)


2-in-1 Shampoos
Some conditioning agents (polyquaterniums, silicones..) are added in order to help combability















8.SHAVING CREAM FORMULATION
  1. Before starting
  2. Typical Ingredients / Usual Method & Tips
  3. Sample Recipe
  4. To go further
Before starting...
Shaving cream is a product applied to the skin to facilitate removal of hair. Traditional shaving creams have been largely replaced by aerosol products with shaving foams and gels. However shaving creams have been used for years and their soap-glycerin-water formulations keep on being a reference for all shaving products: Based on soaps added with glycerin and water. Stearic acid is an ingredient widely used in shaving creams; its soap-like character makes the beard hydrated and softened, falicitating its removal.
Required qualities :
  • Well lubricant properties, skin protection against razor
  • Hydrating properties, softner
  • Well-tolerated, non-irritant
  • Pleasant odor
  • Easy application, easy to spread
  • Creaminess

 Typical Ingredients

 Usual Method
Must Use

Surfactants
5-20 %
Consistency agents
3-8 %
Neutralizing agents
Q.S.*
Humectants
2-10 %
Deionized Water
Q.S.

Usual

Preservatives
0,2-1 %
Emollients
2-5%
Films formers
0-2 %

Optional

Perfume
0,1-1 %
Active agents
0,1-1 %
Dissolve neutralizing agents in water and heat the water to 80 °C. Heat surfactants and consistency agents to 80°C. Mix slowly with water phase.
Keep under slow stirring during saponification ( during 60 minutes).
Remove from heat. Actives and sensitive ingredients should be added after the mixture have been cooled (40°C) in order to keep their properties intact.



Tips
How to improve the feeling and tolerance of your product?
- The residual film should be to the proper pH value. It should correspond to the skin's pH level
- Emollients like mineral oil and lanolin derivatives can be added, making shaving more comfortable, by rending skin softer and more supple

Sample Recipe : Snow shaving cream

Ingredients
Method
Composition
Function
% (w/w)

Phase A
Stearic acid
Surfactant/ soap
8.2
Polysorbate-60
Surfactant/ emulsifier
6.0
Lanolin
Emollient/ emulsifier
5.0
Phase B
Triethanolamine
Neutralizing agent
3.7
Deionized water

Q.S.
Glycerin
Humectant
2.0
Phase C
Phenoxyethanol, butyl-, isobutyl-,ethyl-,methyl-, propylparaben
Preservative
0,7
Perfume

0,2
Phase A  : Oily components are heated to 80-85°C. Mix until homogeneity. Remove from heat. Mix Phase B ingredients, heat to approximately 60°C and add it under stirring to the first phase. Mixing should continue during 60 minutes while maintaining the temperature at 60°C. Then remove from heat. Add preservatives and perfume when the mixture has cooled to 40-30°C.
Properties
White pearlescent cream




To go further

 
Some emollients that can make shaving more comfortable
Beeswax: This natural substance is obtained from bees’ honeycombs. Used as a thickener and emulsifier, it can also reduce inflammation and soften skin
Olive Oil: This stable natural origin substance has excellent lubricating properties.It is nourishing and calming to the skin
Coconut Oil: it has moisturizing properties and contributes to a quick, fluffy foam
Safflower Oil: This natural oil which was used by ancient Egyptian to heal wounds, has moisturizing qualities and reduces skin irritations
* Q.S. (quantum sufficit) = as much as suffices


9. SUN PROTECTION CREAM FORMULATION
Before starting...
Sun protection formulation is a main issue for formulators nowadays. Considering the needs of the market, formulations are more difficult to make than for standard care products: Formulations have to protect against two classes of UV rays during the exposure, also prevent long-term consequences of UV exposure, and provide a pleasant feeling during and after the application. That is a challenge considering:1) the difficulty to stabilize components which bring the sun-protection: UV filters and sunscreens 2) the interactions between the ingredients.
Emulsions oil/water or water/oil are usually used.
Required qualities:
  • Protection against sunburns (immediate effects of sun exposure)
  • Protection against long-term damages on cells
  • However May allow few tan
  • Water-resistant
  • Pleasant feeling during and after application
  • Easy spreadibility
  • Easy-to-use
  • Stable formulation
  • Non-irritant, non-allergenic

 Typical Ingredients

 Usual Method
Must Use

Emulsifiers
3-10%
Emollients (lipophilic)
10-20 %
Sunscreens (TiO2, ZnO, Fe oxides)
1-5%
UV filters
1-10%
Solvents (for filters)
5-10%
Thickener (s)
0.5-2%
Deionized Water
Q.S.

Usual

Antioxidants
0.1-0.5%
Preservatives
0.1-1 %
Humectants
1-5 %
Chelating Agents
0-0,02 %

Optional

Consistency factors
1-3%
Fragrance
0,1-1 %
Active agents
0.1-1%
Colouring agents
Q.S.
Sunscreens and UV filters have to be dispersed in suitable solvents (Pre-dispersions of mineral sunscreens are often available to facilitate the procedure). Then, emollients, emulsifiers, lipophilic components (consistency factors) are combined and melted at 75-80°C. Stabilizers (thickeners) are essential to prevent settling of pigments, they're dispersed separately under stirring in water phase until homogeneous gel is formed and heated to 80°C. The two mixtures are combined progressively to form the emulsion. Mix under intensive stirring until emulsion is formed. Then mix gently while emulsion is cooled. Sensitive components like actives, special additives, preservatives should be added after the mixture has been cooled (40-30°C) in order to keep their properties intact.



Tips
How to reduce the irritation caused by the formulation?
In most cases allergies and irritations are due to UV-filters
- The addition of mineral sunscreens replacing part of UV filters allows reduction of their quantity and consequently the allergenic potential. Nowadays producers can provide sunscreens that offer superior transparency with a wide variety of particle diameters and surface treatments
- Combining more filters (3-4) that provide different UV-absorptions may reduce the% of each of them so to prevent the irritations
How to enhance the efficiency of the protection?
Combine both oil-soluble and water-soluble filters in the formulation

Sample Recipe : Sun cream based on W/O emulsion/ SPF 10

Ingredients
Method
Composition
Function
% (w/w)

Phase A
PEG-30 Dipolyhydroxystearate
Emulsifier (Water in Oil)
1.00
Isohexadecane
Emollient/ solvent
6.00
C-12-15 Alkyl benzoate, titanium dioxide, polyhydroxystearic acid, aluminium stearate, alumina
Sunscreens (Pre-dispersion)
10.0
Phase B
Magnesium sulfate
Stabilizer/ Thickener
1.0
Propylene glycol
Humectant/ solvent
4.5
Deionized water

74,75
Phase C
Tocopherol acetate
Antioxidant
0.05
Cyclopentasiloxane
Solvent/ emollient
2.00
Diazolidinyl urea, methyl-, propylparaben, propylene glycol
Preservative
0.70
Mix and heat separatly Phase A and Phase B to 75-80°C. Just before emulsification add Phase C into A. Add slowly Phase B to Phase A under intensive stirring until the mixture is homogeneous.


Properties
Light cream
SPF (in vitro) = 10
To go further

 
SPF
= Sun protection factor. This number is determined experimentally indoors by exposing human subjects. Its rating is calculated by comparing the amount of time needed to produce a sunburn on protected skin to the amount of time needed to cause a sunburn on unprotected skin. Difference between the 2 amounts allow to determinate SPF rating. SPF numbers can range from as low as 2 to as high as 60.
SPF and rheology
The SPF may be significantly enhanced by controlling the rheology of the product, notably the film:
- If the film is too thin, it doensn't provide sufficient coverage

- If it's too thick, spreadibility will be affected
Viscosity has to be well-balanced between easy spreadibility and suitable coverage

 
10.FORMULATION BASICS: TOOTHPASTES
  1. Before starting
  2. Typical Ingredients / Usual Method & Tips
  3. Sample Recipe
  4. To go further
Before starting...
Toothpastes are mild cosmetic detergents for cleaning teeth. Dental creams are complex dispersions. Indeed, a toothpaste contains a solid phase which is dispersed in a liquid phase. Formulations have to be thick enough thanks to inorganic binders (aluminium silicates, bentonites) and organic thickeners. Thickeners and binders keep the solid phase properly suspended in the liquid phase to prevent separation of the liquid phase out of the toothpaste. Initially intended to freshen the breath and remove deposits from teeth, evolution of toothpaste has also made it a vehicle for the protection of teeth from cavities and gum diseases.
Required qualities :
  • Consistance have to be creamy
  • Thixotropic, enabling it to stand up on the toothbrush after it is extruded
  • Easily washable
  • Abrasive enough
  • Pleasant taste
  • Slightly foaming properties
  • Homogeneous
  • Well-tolerated by gingiva and buccal mucous

 Typical Ingredients

 Usual Method
Must Use

Abrasives
15-35%
Surfactants
0.5-2%
Thickeners/ binders
0-12%
Humectants
40-60%
Deionized Water
Q.S.

Usual

Preservatives
0.2-1.5%
Antimicrobial
0.2-1.5 %
Anticaries
0.2-1.5%
Tartar control ingredients
0.5-10%

Optional

Sweet agents
Q.S
Flavoring agents
0.8-1.5%
Colouring agents
Q.S.
Abrasives are mixed with humectants until a paste is formed. This is an essential step: in fact, formulation is relatively complex and poorly made pastes will separate or liquefy. Organic thickeners are dispersed into water. Intensity and heating depend on thickeners. Actives and additives are added to part of the water and the mixture is added slowly to the paste (in order to prevent the formation of air-bubbles during the mixing stage). Surfactants are added at last stage. Before been added, they may be dipersed in part of heated water if necessary.




 Tips
What are the 3 main requirements to be respected during the procedure to formulate a clear toothpaste?
- Refractive Index of carrier must be equal to Refractive Index of abrasives blend
- The formulation needs to be processed under vacuum. This largely avoids inclusion of air bubbles. Heating the mixture reduces its viscosity, enabling it to be gently mixed under vacuum.
What is the role of humectants in the formulation?
They help keep the moisture in and prevent dryness. They are also used to maintain the plasticity of the paste



Sample Recipe

Ingredients
Method
Composition
Function
% (w/w)

Phase A
Xanthan gum
Thickener
0.8
Sorbitol
Humectant
Q.S.
Glycerin
Humectant
25.0
Phase B
Deionized Water

17.0
Sodium fluorure
Anticaries agent
0.22
Sodium benzoate
Preservative
0.3
Sodium pyrophosphate
Antitartar agent
1.0
Sodium saccharinate (sol 1%)
Sweetener
5.00
Phase C
Silica
Abrasive
21
Titanium dioxide
Whitening agent
0.5
Phase D


Peppermint
Flavoring agent
0.8
Sodium laureth sulfate
Surfactant
4.7
Phase A : Disperse xanthan gum in sorbitol under intensive stirring.
Phase B: Dissolve all additives in water, whilst stirring during 10 minutes. Add B into A and keep stirring during 45 Minutes, until a homogeneous gel is formed. Then add gradually the mixture C to A+B. Keep stirring the mixture slowly during 30 minutes. Add the flavoring agent, then continue stirring during 5 minutes. At last, introduce the surfactant whilst continuing stirring during 5 minutes.




To go further

   
Abrasives
Mineral powders with abrasive properties are usually used in toothpastes to aid mechanical tooth cleaning: Silicas, calcium carbonate, calcium phosphate, alumina, sodium phosphates…Silicas are more abrasive than other components. The ideal abrasive is one that will not scratch the tooth enamel and yet will exert sufficient scouring action to clean and polish teeth. In order to regulate abrasiveness, combination of several kinds of abrasives with different particles sizes is used.


Anti-stain toothpaste
They should be based on calcium phosphate (gentle abrasive) and sodium bicarbonate.


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